Source: National Natural Science Foundation of China

Grant No: 11534014

Project: Universal laws and non-equilibrium dynamics in ultracold atomic gases

Chief Specialist: Prof.Xiwen Guan

Abstract: It is already more than 60 years that the Landau Fermi liquid is successfully used for describing universal quantum fluid behaviour in electronic metals, Kondo impurity, heavy fermions, etc. On the other hand, the Luttinger liquid theory describes universal low energy physics of many-body interacting systems in one dimension. Although Fermi and Luttinger liquids have different dispersions, quantum statistics and densities of states at microscopic level, the macroscopic properties of these quantum liquids are common. It is natural to ask why the macroscopic behaviour of such universal quantum liquids does not depend on the microscopic details? Why the dynamics of non-equilibrium classical and quantum many-body systems near continuous phase transitions satisfies a very general Kibble-Zurek mechanism? However, understanding universal nature of quantum liquids of various types and their intrinsic connection is a long-standing challenging problem in the frontiers of theoretical physics. The aim of this project is to discover the essence of the Fermi and Luttinger liquid as well as universal laws of quantum fluids with high symmetries through the study of quantum fluctuations, many-body correlations, critical dynamics of exactly solvable models of ultracold atoms. Moreover, we will build up an exact scaling theory of quantum critical dynamics through the study of thermalization and quantum dynamics in exactly solvable models of cold atoms. The expected results will extend our understanding of quantum many-body phenomena and pave a way for high precision measurement experiment with ultracold atoms, ions, etc.